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Section 1
A Historical Perspective
1-1.Steelyard for Weight Comparison
1-2.Vacuum Reference Gauge
1-3.Atmospheric Reference Gauge
1-4.Flexible Load-Cell Connections
1-5.Typical Load Cell Installation
1-6.Tank "Staying" Designs
Section 2
The Strain Gage
2-1.Definitions of Stress & Strain
2-2.Shearing Strain
2-3.Poisson Strain
2-4.Strain Gage Designs
2-5.Bonded Resistance Strain Gage Construction
2-6.Wheatstone Bridge Circuit Schematic
2-7.Chevron Bridge Circuit Schematic
2-8.Four-Wire Ohm Circuit Schematic
2-9.Constant Current Circuit Schematic
2-10.Alternative Lead-Wire Configuration
2-11.Gage-Factor Temperature Dependence
2-12.Apparent Strain Variation with Temperature
2-13.Strain Gage Installation Alternatives
Section 3
Process Pressure Measurement
3-1.Bourdon Tube Designs
3-2.Pressure Sensor Diaphragm Designs
3-3.Electronic Pressure Sensor Ranges
3-4.Strain-Gage Based Pressure Cell
3-5.Capacitance-Based Pressure Cell
3-6.Potentiometric Pressure Transducer
3-7.Resonant-Wire Pressure Transducer
3-8.Typical Piezoelectric Pressure Sensor
3-9.Acceleration-Compensated Piezoelectric Sensor
3-10.Magnetic Pressure Transducer Designs
3-11.Optical Pressure Transducer
3-12.Bourdon Tube Overpressure Protection
3-13.Three-Valve Manifold for Instrument Isolation
3-14.Dead-Weight Tester Schematic
3-15.Pulsation Damper & Snubber Designs
3-16.Chemical Seal Alternatives
3-17.Volumetric Seal Element Designs
Section 4
High pressure & Vacuum
4-1.Mechanical High Pressure Sensors
4-2.Bulk Modulus Cell
4-3.Barometer Operation
4-4.Vacuum Gauge Measurement Ranges
4-5.Manometer Designs
4-6.Capacitance Vacuum Manometer
4-7.Hot-Cathode Vacuum Gauge
4-8.Cold-Cathode Vacuum Gauge
Section 5
Pressure Gages & Switches
5-1.Pressure Gauge Designs
5-2.Pressure Gauge Accessories
5-3.Pressure Switch Terminology
Section 6
Force, Acceleration, & Torque
6-1.Piezoelectric Sensor Element Designs
6-2.Impact Flowmeter Application
6-3.Early Mechanical Vibration Sensor
6-4.Torque on a Rotating Shaft
6-5.Inductive Coupling of Torque Sensors
Section 7
Load Cell Designs
7-1.Load Cell Performance Comparison
7-2.Wheatstone Circuit with Compensation
7-3.Load Cell Spring Elements
Section 8
Weighing applicatins
8-1.Tank Staying Arrangement
8-2.Cantilever Load Cells Reduce Staying Requirements
8-3.End-Loaded Shear-Beam Installation
8-4.Master Load Cell for Weighbridge Calibration
8-5.Treadle Scale Design
8-6.Monorail Weighing Transducer
8-7.Load Cell Configurations for Solids Batching
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