A Historical Perspective
From Aristotle to Hawking
Force & Its Effects
Measurement Limitations
The Strain Gage
Sensor Designs
Measuring Circuits
Application & Installation
Process Pressure Measurement
From Mechanical to Electronic
Transducer Types
Practical Considerations
High Pressure & Vacuum
High Pressure Designs
Very High Pressures
Vacuum Instrumentation
Pressure Gauges
& Switches
Pressure Gauge Designs
Protective Accessories
Pressure Switches
Force, Acceleration,
& Torque
Force Sensors
Acceleration & Vibration
Torque Measurement
Load Cell Designs
Operating Principles
New Sensor Developments
Strain Gage Configurations
Weighing Applications
Weighing System Design
Installation & Calibration
Specialized Installations
Information Resources
List of Figures
Data Tables

 This third volume in Omega's Transactions in Measurement & Control series explores the full gamut of force-related instrumentation technologies--devices for measuring a range of kindred variables from acceleration to pressure to torque to weight.
 The sensor and transducer technologies that underlie these superficially different variables have quite a lot in common. Pressure, for example, is simply a force applied over an area, acceleration is a force with the mass divided out, and weight is a force resisting the pull of the earth's gravity. Indeed, the primary differences among the technologies discussed in the chapters that follow is in the painstaking engineering that has optimized the physical phenomena behind devices such as the strain gage into instruments precisely tailored to your specific application requirements.
 But sensors and transducers are only the first element of what it takes to perform a meaningful measurement. Once a particular sensor has been chosen, many other decisions often must still be made. Power supply, signal conditioning, panel display or other host system--even the electrical connectors, tubing, and fittings--must be properly specified to fully satisfy your complete measurement needs. Nobody comes to Omega simply needing a strain gage or load cell; they need a solution to a measurement and control problem. And nobody can fill that bill like Omega.
 At Omega, we believe it's this ability to provide you with a complete solution, teamed with exceptional service, that keeps thousands of satisfied customers coming back. Sure, it helps that we've got more than 40,000 products at our beck and call, but whether your solution demands a custom-engineered product in OEM quantities or simply application engineering assistance for a single installation, rest assured we've got you covered.
 We hope you find this issue of Transactions useful and that it finds a permanent home on your reference shelf. And if the first two issues on "Non-Contact Temperature Measurement" and "Data Acquisition" somehow missed you, visit us on the web at for your complementary copies.

P.S. If you wish to submit an article of relevance for future issues of Transactions, please submit via mail (P.O. Box 4047, Stamford, CT 06907), FAX (203-359-7700), or e-mail (

 OMEGA's Transactions in Measurement & Control series, as well as our legendary set of handbooks and encyclopedias, are designed to provide at-your-fingertips access to the technical information you need to help meet your measurement and control requirements. But when your needs exceed the printed word--when technical assistance is required to select among alternative products, or when no "off-the-shelf" product seems to fill the bill--we hope you'll turn to OMEGA. There is no advertising or promotional materials in the Transactions series. There will be none.
 Our people, our facilities, and our commitment to customer service set the standard for control and instrumentation. A sampler of our comprehensive resources and capabilities:

 • OMEGA's commitment to leading-edge research and development and state-of-the-art manufacturing keeps us firmly at the forefront of technology. OMEGA's Development and Engineering Center, located on our Stamford, Conn., campus, is home to OMEGA's design and engineering laboratories. All product designs are tested and perfected here prior to marketing. This facility houses OMEGA's metrology lab and other quality control facilities. The testing that takes place here assures that you receive the best products for your applications.
 • On the manufacturing side, our Bridgeport, N.J., vertically integrated manufacturing facility near Philadelphia houses advanced thermocouple wire production equipment along with a host of other computerized CNC milling machines, injection molding equipment, screw machines, braiders, extruders, punch presses and much, much more.
 • If our broad range of standard products don't quite match your needs, OMEGA is proud to offer the most sophisticated and extensive custom engineering capabilities in the process measurement and control industry. Whether you need a simple modification of a standard product or complete customized system, OMEGA can accommodate your special request. Free CAD drawings also are supplied with customized product orders or a new design built to your specifications at no obligation.
 • We believe in active versus reactive customer service. To complement our current business and manufacturing operations, OMEGA continues to strive toward new levels of quality by pursuing ISO 9000 quality standards. This systematic approach to quality strengthens OMEGA's competitive edge. Our calibration services and quality control test center are trustworthy resources that help satisfy our customers' needs for accuracy on an initial and ongoing basis.
 • The company's technical center welcomes many corporate groups of engineers and scientists who turn to OMEGA for training. Our 140-seat auditorium, equipped with the latest in multimedia presentation technologies, provides an ideal learning environment for training tailored to your company's needs--from basic refreshers to in-depth courses.
 In short, it is our commitment to quality instrumentation and exceptional customer service that remains the cornerstone of our success. OMEGA's priority is clear: we exist to facilitate solutions to your needs.

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